- Where do heat pumps get their energy from? Depending on the model, environmental heat can be obtained from the pumps from the air, groundwater or the earth. They remove heat from the respective area and pass it on as heating energy.
- How much do heat pumps cost? The systems themselves vary in price depending on the type and can range between €8,000 and €15,000. Additional costs arise for installation and development, as well as for maintenance work and the power consumption of the devices.
- How can heat pumps be financed? Since the purchase and development initially costs a lot of money, you can use loans or installment payments to finance it. Support programs for renewable energies are also particularly recommended, which means that a large part of the costs can be covered.
Heat pump systems use a technical process in order to be able to use free environmental heat for heating. A system usually consists of three parts: a heat source system, which extracts heat or energy from the environment; the heat pump, which compresses and heats the environmental heat; as well as a heat distribution and storage system in which the energy can be temporarily stored and ultimately distributed throughout the house.
Use the pumps as heating for your home, Significantly reduces annual heating costs and is environmentally friendly. Find out in our guide which requirements must be met in your house for a heat pump to be worthwhile, what costs you can expect and how you can save money on financing.
1. When is it worth buying a heat pump? 3 criteria for decision
Heat pump in an old building
While she already in every third new building are installed, heat pumps usually do not play a major role in old buildings, as these are usually less well insulated houses without surface heating. In order to be able to use a heat pump efficiently in an old building, it would have to be completely renovated. In terms of costs, this can be worthwhile, especially in the long term, but it should be carefully calculated in advance.
- Before you decide to buy a heat pump, you should make sure that this type of heating is worthwhile for your household. The main thing to pay attention to is the insulation of the house: with uninsulated walls, the heat pump cannot work efficiently or in an environmentally friendly manner. To ensure cost-effective and climate-friendly use, your house should have good thermal insulation.
- It is also relevant that right There are large radiators in the house, such as underfloor heating or wall panel heating. They give off heat over a larger area and therefore require less high temperatures, making these radiators ideal for profitable operation of the heat pump.
- Since the models can be relatively expensive to purchase, it makes sense to Financing the heat pump to rely on cheap loans or installment payments. Let yourself Ideally, you can also advise on the energy balance of your house before making a purchase, to determine what heating output is actually required. In this way, unnecessary costs can be avoided if necessary.
2. Types of heat pump: air/water, brine/water or water/water
As soon as you take a closer look at heat pumps, you will see a wide variety of types. First, the pumps are differentiated according to their temperature range:
- Low temperature heat pumps: reach up to 55° C
- Medium temperature heat pumps: reach up to 65° C
- High temperature heat pumps: reach up to 75° C
Which category is suitable for your home also depends on the insulation. A particularly well-insulated house is well supplied with a low-temperature heat pump; in a house with moderate insulation, a high-temperature heat pump should be used. This means that a lot of heat is not processed unnecessarily and energy is saved.
Differences can also be determined in terms of the heat source that the pump taps into, allowing different types of heat pumps to be identified. Common heat pumps in single-family homes are
- air/air heat pumps,
- air/water heat pumps,
- Water/water heat pumps and
- Brine/water heat pumps.
Depending on the type, the water heat pump draws its energy from the ambient air, from the groundwater or from the solar heat in the ground and transfers it to the living spaces using a heating water circuit. With an air/air heat pump, the heat obtained is distributed through the air in the house. It eliminates the need for radiators and surfaces in the building and is also called a ventilation heating system.
3. Do you need a permit for a heat pump?
An important factor to consider before purchasing a heat pump is whether the model you choose is a permit-free heat pump or not. You can usually have air/water and brine/water heat pumps installed without any problems without having to obtain approval in advance. When installing the heat pump, make sure that the noise it makes during operation is not annoying to you or your neighbors.
A notice: In certain areas, such as those under water protection, a brine/water heat pump may also be prohibited. If you are unsure, you should obtain relevant information from your building authority or water authority.
For water/water heat pumps and others For models that require deep drilling around your house, approval is required. although certain requirements may vary from state to state. The situation is similar with the costs for the respective permit, which can be in a fairly wide price range. You can find information about this from the relevant water authority in your district, city or directly from relevant specialist planners and heat pump manufacturers.
4. These costs should be taken into account
Even if the heat pump can save money in the long term, purchasing and installing it can be quite expensive at first. The Prices vary depending on the type of heat pump and the effort involved. which is accepted for the installation, e.g. B. Excavation and drilling work. The following table gives you some average values for a 120 m² single-family home for guidance:
|Heat pump type
|annual maintenance costs
|Air/air heat pump
|2,000 – 6,000 €
|5,000 – 10,000 €
|Air Water heatpump
|500 – 2,000 €
|4,000 – 12,000 €
|Water/water heat pump
|4,000 – 7,000 €
|9,000 – 12,000 €
|600 – 900 €
|Brine/water heat pump
|3,000 – 8,000 €
|5,000 – 12,000 €
|500 – 800 €
Since electric heat pumps work with electricity, you will still have ongoing maintenance costs, which should not be ignored. In addition, maintenance work and repair costs, for example, can be added to the annual electricity costs.
5. Types of financing and subsidies for your heat pump
The high acquisition and development costs can seem overwhelming at first, but you can breathe a sigh of relief: Since heat pump systems largely work with renewable energies, There are some funding programs that can help you with financing. You also have the option of accessing cheap loans with low interest rates, especially for financing heat pumps. Larger craft businesses usually also allow the costs to be paid off in installments, although the price for the pump itself and its installation can be cheaper for smaller businesses.
5.1. Save 35% of costs with the federal government’s funding program
If you use renewable heat in your heating system, you can apply for funding from the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA). This will still be through the funding program until the end of 2020 “Heating with renewable energies” possible. If you only consider applying for funding later, you can still do so at Federal funding for efficient buildings (BEG) make. With the help of these programs, 35% of the eligible costs for heat pumps can be covered in new buildings, insofar as certain requirements are met. For an old building in which, for example, an oil heating system is to be replaced by a heat pump, you can even expect support of up to 45% of the costs.
A notice: Applications for support from the federal government must be submitted before the start of the project, i.e. before a purchase or construction contract for a heat pump has been concluded. However, planning and consultations may take place before the application is submitted.
5.2. Hire local tradesmen and get cheap loans
Some regional banks offer Discounts on loans for construction projects are available if the applicant commissions local craft businesses for the construction work. The only thing that matters is the location of the building that is to be funded. Please contact your local bank branch to find out whether such offers are available.
So-called environmental banks are also designed to use profits for sustainable, ecological and social projects. With such a bank you have a good chance of getting special loans for your heat pump because you are doing something good for the environment with your system and the use of renewable energy.
5.3. Claim tax reductions of 20%
Energy-saving measures can be claimed for tax purposes, especially for buildings that are more than 10 years old and are now being renovated. In addition to insulating roofs and walls and replacing doors and windows, this also includes replacing the heating system. The tax bonus can be up to 20% and the reduction itself cannot be higher than €40,000. It should be noted that the bonus is spread over 3 years, so 7% in the first year and 6% of the costs in the second and third can be claimed for tax purposes.
Image credits: stock.adobe.com/Studio Harmony, shutterstock/Christian Delbert (sorted chronologically or according to the order of the images used in the buying guide)